Muslim Geniuses – gift to Mankind

Muslim Geniuses in the history till now has served the world and humanity through their abilities and passion in the field of science, literature, religion, astronomy, medicine etc. From the box of huge list we have compiled few Muslim geniuses with their remarkable work.
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Jabir Ibn Hayyan
The first modern chemist who discovered acids

He is among the first to discover acids, success in distilling sulphuric acid, extraction sodium carbons, potassium, arsenic and silver nitrate. His famous laboratory was found in ruins about two centuries later.

Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khawarizmi
Founder of algebra
He discovered the numerical system which was adopted in Europe at the end of 16th century.

Due to his work on “hisab al jabar wa al-muqablah”as the first Muslim which later on known to the world as algebra. In relation to numbers he invented the term logarithm. He classified no. into three types and operations into six. Found solution to the operation of 2nd and 3rd degree.

His successors later on carried out research on his developed tables known as astronomical zij (table) and trigonometric tables (with sines and tangent)

It is due to his books that got translated into Latin and English which lead way to exercise a powerful influence on the development of mediaeval thought.

Abu Yousuf Yaqub Ibn Ishaq Al Kindi
First Muslim author to write on the relation between astronomy-astrology and medicine.

He is considered as the first Muslim philosopher to utilize and develop the philosophical concept of Greek thought. He also composed in Arabic nearly 300 treatises and translations on various topics. Al-tibb al- naumi is his book that comes under the branch of subject astronomy-astrology.
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Abbas Ibn Firnas
He attempted to fly in 861 A.D by jumping from a top and managed to glide for a distance.

He was the first to teach the science of music in Al-Andalus. He had made known the tables of Sind Hind which later had great influence on the development of astronomy in Europe. He constructed a planetarium, a clock, and an armillary sphere with the invention of fabrication of crystals.

Jabir Ibn Sinan Al Battani
Arab Astronomer and mathematician, who offered solution to the operations of triangular equations.
Discovered trigonometry.

During the middle age the whole Europe knew this fellow because of his work towards giving solution to the operations of triangular equations. He gave the world the law of sines and cosines. It is he who found more accurate values of the year of the season, the annual precession of the equinoxes and the inclination of the ecliptic.

Al-Hasan Ibn Al-Haytham
He was the Pioneer in the scientific study of optic and light, which influenced Leonardo da Vinchi, Johann Kepler and Sir Isaac Newton.

THESAURUS OPTICUS published in Basle in 1952 (it is actually a translated book of Al-Hasan).

He is the first to draw the eye attention to illustrate phenomenon of expansion of flat surfaces and explained phenomenon of reflection and expansion. “Kitab fil Manazir” is his great work.

Abu Rayhan Al-Biruni
He invented “Biruni Method” – for measurement of the radius and rotation of earth on its axis, accurately measured latitudes and longitudes.
Invented a method to extract salt from sea.

Biruni also invented a method to measure generic weight for nine metals along with the discovery of the nature of liquid pressure. He even worked on astronomical encyclopedia and gifted the world with “Qanun Al-Masudi”.

Apart from that he also handed over “Tahqiq Al-Hind” a compendium of concise and penetrating information about the intellectual and socio- economic conditions in the sub-continent.

Abu Ali Al Husayn Ibn Abdallah Ibn Sina
Qanun Fi At-Tibb (The cannon of medicine) a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopedia probably the largest work of its kind ever written by one man.
He distinguished 15 types of illness and prescribed 760 remedies, identified Tuberculosis, Meningitis and other such inflammations.

This man was the first to identify that economic is itself a science. His role towards initiating European Renaissance was very critical.
Ibn Muhammad Ibn Al-Husayn Al – Karaji
The book “Al Badi Fil Hisab”, which explains the extraction of the square root of a polynomial with an unknown.
His work also includes an attempt to free algebra from the tutelage of geometry.

Nizamul Mulk Tusi
Considered to be the greatest patrons of learning that the world has seen.
Introduced a Solar Calendar.

Tusi established higher educational institutions not only in Neshapur but also in Baghdad, Khurasan, Iraq and Syria. He even set up a university named “Nizamiyah” in 1066 Baghdad, whose rector was the famous Imam Ghazzali. He wrote a book on Iranian Administrative Insight and scholarship by the name “Siyasat Nama”.

Omar Khayyam
Founder of what is known in the West as – Pascal’s Triangle.

He even devised a calendar which is more accurate than Julian and Gregorian calendar being used today.

Ibn – Zuhr (Father of Dietetics)
He described Pericarditis, outline surgical procedures for Tracheotomy, excision of Cataracts, and removal of Kidney Stones.

He was the first Muslim physician in Spain and his influence on medicine in the West continued until Renaissance.

Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Al-Idrisi
He made the first world map which resembles to the current modern cartographers.

His greatest works are “Nuzhat Al Mushtak Fi Ikhtirak Al-Afak” which was produced on the orders of Roger II, the Norman King of Sicily.

Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Tufayl
His work which survived later on till 1929 was a Philosophical Romance.

He wrote a book “Risalat Hayy Ibn Takzan” in 1175. It was later on translated in 1708 by the name “The Improvement of Human Reason”. Its new edition came in 1929 as “The history of Hay Ibn Yaqzan”.

It is a philosophical romance in which he describes the self –education and gradual philosophical development of a man who passes the first 50 years of his life in complete isolation on an uninhabited island.

Abul Qasim Khalef Ibn Al Zahrawi
He was the first to recommend surgical removal of a broken Patella (kneecap).
His book “Tasrif Li-Man Aijaza-Anal Talif” laid the foundation of Western Surgery.

He invented several types of surgical scissors and grasping forceps. He gave original description for manufacturing and using probes, surgical knives, scalpels and hooks of various shapes and designs.

After 50 years of dedicated work in the field of medicine and surgery he wrote his book which was considered a complete reference and was studied by students of surgery in Europe till the 19th century.
image3

Ibn An Nafis
He was the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.

In finding that the wall between the right and left ventricles of the heart is solid and without pores, he disputed Galen’s view that the blood passes directly from the right to the left side of the heart. He corrected that the blood must pass from the right to the left ventricles by ways of the lungs.

It was only in the 20th century that his work was bought into light.

Abd Allah Al-Lawati Al Tanji Battutah

He is the greatest traveler that the world had known.

Long before the advent of steam boats and speedy means of travelling Battutah begins his travelling in 1325 covering 75,000 miles trip through all the Muslim countries.

He is also the author of the famous travelling book “Rihlah” (Journey).

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